What form/shape does emulsion take itself? What shape does emulsion shape itself into?

101.6mm Film Strip and 35mm Slide Projector

Having started to look at alternatives to the standard formats of the analogue film strips 8mm, 16mm, and 35mm with perforations. I initially looked at and worked with cling film which is 350mm across, I then discovered ‘plastic cake liners’ which are made out of exactly the same material ‘polyester’ as the current analogue film formats.

The polyester cake tin liner I looked to use was 4inches in width 101.6mm.


Initially I thought about stretching the film strip horizontally across/dissecting a space, such as a gallery space with the film strip placed at eye level. With the film strip being attached to one wall and then being attached to the opposite wall of the space. In this sense the viewer would be an integral part of the film, the film ‘experience’ and the movement that occurs as in the viewer would walk along, sideways, looking at whatever was on the filmstrip. In this sense I am interested in McCall’s questioning of the differences between static photography and moving film. In that even with a static photograph the viewer moves around/moves their gaze around a photograph and in this sense there isn’t such a thing as a static photograph.

NOTES IN DURATION This film sits deliberately on a threshold, between being considered a work of movement and being considered a static condition. Formalist art criticism has continued to maintain a stern, emphatic distinction between these two states, a division that I consider absurd. Everything that occurs, including the (electro- chemical) process of thinking, occurs in time. It is cultural habit that persuades us otherwise – perhaps a function of intelligence, that breaks up perception of continuous time into “moments” in order to analyse them. Our insistence upon static, absolute lumps of experience, as opposed to continuous, overlapping, multiple durations, shows a warped epistemology, albeit a convenient one. Art that does not show change within our time-span of attending to it we tend to regard as “object.” Art that does show change within our time-span of at- tending to it we tend to regard as “event.” Art that outlives us we tend to regard as “eternal.” What is at issue is that we ourselves are the division that cuts across what is essentially a sliding scale of time-bases. A piece of paper on the wall is as much a duration as the projection of a film. Its only difference is in its immediate relationship to our perceptions. A static thing, in terms of impulses to the brain, is a repetitive event. Whether the locus for consideration is “static” or “moving,” we deal with time-spans of attention, the engagement of cognition and memory within the context of art behavior. Neither objects nor events are, for the most part, accessible. They are rarely “on show.” Since they are intentional, meaningful signs, this is of no con- sequence: once an idea is established “in mind,” it has entered the circuit of (art) ideas, and it won’t go away, except through debate within the circuit. The apprehension of any artwork, static or moving, is a fleeting moment, as are all experiences. It is their mental residue that is important.”

Interview: Formalist Cinema and Politics

Author(s): Anthony McCall and Gautam Dasgupta

Source: Performing Arts Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Winter, 1977), pp. 51-61

Published by: Performing Arts Journal, Inc

Stable URL:

Accessed: 10-12-2018 16:53 UTC


A 4 inch strip of polyester clear film fits perfectly through a Boots 150 Slide Projector. The Compact 150 first hit the market in 1971.

The gate of the projector runs right through the projector allowing the film strip to run through horizontally as opposed to vertically as is the standard with 8mm, and 16mm projectors.


I tested out doing milk drops on the 4 inch strip similar to what I had done before except this time each milk drop consists of more than one milk drop from a pipette.


The 35mm slide projector becomes like a microscope showing the detail of the semi-skimmed ‘Morrisons Dairy Milk’.

What can achieved here with analogue is an image that is a direct copy of the material on the 4 inch polyester film strip. In some ways this is Bazin’s death mask, (or in this case milk mask), or Brakhage’s Mothlight (or again in this case MilkLight) a direct copy of the thing itself. But what is one seeing in terms of the image seen, what one is really seeing is the light from the projector. The light coming from the bulb passes through two lens through the film strip and the milk drop on it and then through another lens


What can be seen (above by way of the photo of the projected image and below by way of the illustration) is an image of emulsion I say this in the sense of the raw image that emulsion forms. The image that emulsion forms can be seen to be that of an egg with an inner part, and outer part and a membrane. In fact an egg is emulsion.

The illustrations below show the structure of the milk material that can be seen above



Image referenced from:

Belitz, Hans-Dieter & Grosch, Werner & Schieberle, Peter. (2008). Milk and Dairy Products. 10.1007/978-3-540-69934-7_11.  p.510


Nature’s complex emulsion: The fat globules of milk

PowerPoint Presentation

The milk fat globule in milk represents a unique emulsion system designed by Nature to deliver energy, essential fatty acids and lipid-soluble nutrients to the neonate. The fat globules range from 0.1 to 15 μm in diameter and are stabilised by milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) which is composed of phospholipids, various glycoproteins, enzymes and cholesterol.

Food Hydrocolloids

Volume 68, July 2017, Pages 81-89


“[casein]… structure has not yet been well understood. Basically, casein micelle is composed of calcium phosphate clusters together with different casein molecules where three members of casein family, as1, as2, and b-casein, precipitate with alkali, and r-casein is forming colloidally stable units by sterically stabilizing the unit as an outer layer ( Fig. 1). According to steric stabilization theory, the hydrophobic layer provides impenetrable barrier against aggregation. Hence, all grow- ing chains terminate and leave the casein micelle with a stabilizing coat of r-casein…”

Text and image referenced from:

Kaya-Celiker, Hande & Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar. (2012). Better Nutrients and Therapeutics Delivery in Food Through Nanotechnology. Food Engineering Reviews. 4. 10.1007/s12393-012-9050-3.


Using a polyester cake tin liner which has a series of globules of milk on it and pulling it through a set of four Boots 35mm slide projectors.


Using a polyester cake tin liner which has a series of globules of milk on it and pulling it through a Boots 35mm slide projector. Using a kitchen roll holder and three 16mm spools to act as a 35mm spool arm. Using Reynaud as an inspiration to question what can be considered a projector, and how we might see a projector.